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دعاي خانم ها : خدايا به من عشق بده تا همسرم را دوست بدارم ؛ صبر بده تا تحملش كنم ؛ اما قدرت نده كه مي زنم لهش مي كنم ....


هيتلر به ناپلئون: ما براي شرف جنگيم ولي شما براي پول. ناپلئون:هرکسي براي چيزي که نداره ميجنگه



 یکی میره بهشت می بینه همه بچه ها دارن در میرن ، میگه چرا در میرید ، میگن شهدای قزوین رو آوردن


 
 
ترکه میخواسته نماز بخونه میگه الحمدلله رب العالمین... خدایا سرتو درد نمیارم ولاالضالین  
 
معلم اضيظم عذ اينکه به من خاندن و نوشطن عاموخطي حذار بار اضط ممنونم! 'مهموود عهمدي نجاد

 
باز هم يک ابتکار....باز هم يک نواوري...پزشکان نابغه ايراني با پيوند رگ غيرت به يک رشتي باز هم حماسه افريدند
 
دعاي دختر مجرد:اللهم عجل في ازدواجنا و تکميل ديننا وارزقنا زوجا الذي رفيعا مدرکا و رشيدا قدا و مالا کثيرا و بيتا مستقلا و سياره البرشيا
دعاي پسر مجرد: اللهم ارزقنا حوريا تک دانه و کم توقعا و والدينها رو به موتا و جهيزيتها کامله و کدبانوا في اامور المنزل و تسليما لخشمنا و خدمت
 
سه نفر ترک پليس مخفي ميشن. الان نيروي انتظامي 4 ساله دنبالشون مي گرده بهشون حقوق بده پيداشون نميکنه
 
لره ميره پيك نيك زنش بهش ميگه بشينم زير اون درخت خوبه. ميگه نه همين وسط جاده پتو بنداز امن تره!زنش ميگه اينجا ماشين ميزنه ها؟!!!! خلاصه بعد از مقداري بحث ميندازن وسط جاده.بعد ميبينن يه كاميون داره مياد طرفشون هر چي بوق ميزنه اونا از جاشون تكان نميخورن كاميونه هم فرمونو ميپيچونه ميره تو درخت.اون وقت لره به زنش ميگه اگه زير اون درخت بوديم مرده بوديما !!!!!!!
 
 


 


ستاد مبارزه با بد حجابي اعلام كرد: نگهداري عسل و ميرزا قاسمي در يخچال ممنوع مي باشد مگر اينكه در يخچال باز باشد!!
 
 
 
ترکه ميره از ملاي محل ميپرسه: ببخشيد حاج آقا، با کفش ميشه نماز خوند؟ حاج آقا ميگه: نه برادر، نميشه. ترکه ميگه: ولي من خوندم , شد ...
 
 
مرد به سرعت به خانه امد و فریاد زد عزیزم ساکتو ببند .من همین الان ۱۰ میلیون دلار برنده شدم . زن : ساکها رو برای ساحل ببندم یا کوه . مرد : مهم نیست فقط ساکتو ببندو از جلو چشام دور شو
 
اصفهانيه قله اورست رو فتح كرد.بهش ميگن انگيزه ات چي بود؟؟ ميگه خدا لعنت كنه كسي رو كه گفت اون بالا نذري ميدن ...
 
 
 
چه وقت زنان خدا را شکر می کنند؟
زن رو به خدا کرد و گفت: چرا باید دیه ما نصف مردها باشد؟ خداوند مهربانانه فرمود: عزیز من ! اگر با کشتن، تو را از شوهرت بستانند، به او هشت میلیون می رسد، ولی اگر او را بکشند تو صاحب شانزده میلیون می شوی !!! زن خندید و گفت: خدایا حکمتت را شکر ...
 

 

مامانه به بچه هه ميگه ميدونم شيطون گولت زد موهاي خواهرتو کشيدي! بچه هه ميگه آره ولي لگدي که زدم تو شيکمش ابتکار خودم بود
 
 
 
تركه با دوست دخترش ميرن پارك تركه ميگه :عزيزم اگه اين درخت كاج زبون داشت الان به ما چي ميگفت ؟ دختره ميگه اگه زبون داشت ميگفت  من زردآلوام نه كاج ...
 
از طرف بهداشت اومدن سرکشي گاوداري به لره گفتن شما به گاوهاتون چي ميديدگفت علف!جريمش کردن بار دوم که اومدن بازم همون سوال رو کردن لره گفت ما به گاوهامون چلو کباب ميديم:-؟؟ باز هم جريمش کردن بار سوم اومدن باز هم همون سوال رو ازش کردن لره کمي فکر کرد بعد با خوشحالي گفت ما به گاوهامون پول تو جيبي ميديم هر چي دلشون ميخواد بخرن بخورن ...
 
ترکه واسه اولين بار يه اخوند مي بينه بهش ميگه يعني اینقدر سرت درد مي کنه؟
 
لره داشته يكي رو بدجور ميزده و هي داد ميزده كمك كمك! بهش ميگن بابا تو كه داري اينو مي زني، تو چرا كمك مي‌خواي؟ ميگه آخه اين گفته اگه بلند شم لهت مي كنم
 
 
 
 
به طرف ميگن 'تور' را تعريف كن؟ ميگه: تور مجموعه سوراخهايي هستند كه با طناب به هم وصل شده‌اند
 

 

یارو راديو لوژيست بوده به مريض ميگه تو عکستون يک شکستگي بزرک در دنده ي راستتون ديدم اما اصلا نگران نباشيد خودم با فتو شاب درستش کردم
 
لره تلويزيون ميخره بعد کنترلشو پس مياره به صاحب مغازه ميگه بيا داداش اين ماشين حساب توش بود ما حرومي بهمون نمياد
 
تركه يه مگس ميگيره, بش ميگه بپر.. مگسه ميپره. مگس رو ميگره يه بالشو ميكنه, بش ميگه بپر.. مگس به زور ميپره . باز مگس رو ميگيره اون يكي بالشم ميكنه, بش ميگه حالا بپر... مگسه نيمپره. بعد تركه ميگه : حالا ما نتيجه ميگيريم كه وقتي بالهاي مگس رو بكنيم ، مگس كر ميشه
 
 
 
 
 
به تركه ميگن....ميس كال چيه؟ميگه يه نوع مقياس وزن هست....نشنيديد؟ مثلا' ميگن يه ميس كال زعفران
 
غضنفر رو مي‌برن افريقا، يك تمساح نشونش ميدن. ازش میپرسن: «شما تو کشورتون به اين چي ميگين؟» غضنفر میگه: «ما غلط می‌کنیم چيزي به اين بگيم
 
.
 
ترکه و رشتیه و لره ميرن دزدي- صابخونه بيدار ميشه و دزدا ميرن هر کدوم تو يه گوني قايم ميشن!صابخونه مياد و به گوني ترکه لگد ميزنه..صداي نون خشک در مياره! به گونی رشتیه لگد ميزنه .. صداي گردو در مياره! به گوني لره لگد ميزنه ... هيچ صدايي در نمياد..دوياره محکمتر لگد ميزنه... باز صدا نميده!؟ دفعه سوم که لگد ميزنه لره با عصبانيت مياد بيرون ميگه بابا ..آرده ، آرد ..آرد صدا نداره ! ميفهمي؟ آرد.....
+ نوشته شده در  جمعه بیست و ششم تیر 1388ساعت 6:5  توسط بابك  | 

Welcome to the Tesla Memorial

 

Seal

Tesla Search Engine
30 Years

Globe
Above: Tesla's Alternating Current is lighting the entire globe and providing electricity for industry and progress.

Plaque
Above: Commemorative Plaque on Building (32 West 40 Street, Manhattan, New York), "The Engineers Club", was erected in memory of famous American Engineers who helped America transform from a largely agricultural nation to an architectural and industrial empire. Nikola Tesla's name is included on the plaque among other famous Americans.

 

Radio Wave Building

Above:  Plaque of Nikola Tesla on Radio Wave Building.  Radio Wave Building located at 49 West 27th Street (between Broadway and Sixth Avenue), Lower Manhattan. It was the former Gerlach Hotel, where Tesla lived before the end of the century and experimented with Radio Waves, in 1896.

Above: Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) at the age of 38.

Above: Earth at Night (click to enlarge).
Tesla's Alternating Current is today lighting the globe.  Photo by NASA satellites.

 

Links for Tesla and non-Tesla Websites

Board Members of the Tesla Memorial Society of New York

Tesla Memorial Society of New York (30 year history of the Society) written by Dr. Ljubo Vujovic, Secretary General of the Society

 

 

The Year of 2006 is "Nikola Tesla Year".  This year was proclaimed by the governments of Serbia and Croatia, UNESCO, and the Professional Engineers of Ontario, Canada.

 

Celebrating the 150th anniversary of Nikola Tesla's birth in the Year 2006

United States Governors Proclamations Proclaiming in their States "Nikola Tesla Day" on July 10th

Tesla-related places in New York City

Nikola Tesla Monument within Queen Victoria Park, Niagara Falls (Canadian side) was unveiled on July 9, 2006

Above: Tesla Monument at Niagara Falls (Canadian side), Queen Victoria Park, unveiled on July 9, 2006.  Tesla is standing atop an AC motor, one of the 700 inventions he patented. The monument was the work of Canadian sculptor Les Dryzdale.

 

Above: Tesla Monument at Goat Island, Niagara Falls, New York.  Gift of Yugoslavia to the United States, 1976. 
Nikola Tesla designed the first hydro-electric power plant in Niagara Falls.  This was the final victory of Tesla's Alternating Current over Edison's Direct Current.  The monument was the work of Croatian sculptor Frane Krsinic.   

 

Tesla Memorial Society of New York is celebrating its 27th anniversary.  It was founded in Buffalo, New York in 1979.  It is the oldest Tesla Society in North America dedicated to keeping the memory of Nikola Tesla alive.  We are committed to the pursuit of science, progress, brotherhood among all nations and religions around the world.

 

Above: New York City, Manhattan.  Nikola Tesla lived and worked in New York City for almost 60 years.

 

Above: Tesla commemorative plaque on Hotel New Yorker erected July 10, 2001 by the Tesla Memorial Society of New York and Hotel New Yorker.

 

 

Foundation of the Tesla Memorial Society

 

Tesla's Ashes in the Tesla Museum, Belgrade

Above: Tesla ashes were placed in a golden sphere, Tesla Museum, Belgrade.

 

International "Nikola Tesla Day"

Above: Proposal for Proclamation of "Nikola Tesla Day" on July 10 by United Nations.  Click here for more information.

 

Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade Website

Above: The Nikola Tesla Museum (Website) in Belgrade.

 

The Tesla Remote Control
photo from the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, Serbia (click here for the museum).

 

Above: Nikola Tesla, showing the inventor in the effulgent glory of myriad tongues of electrical flame, New York Sunday World, 1894.

 

Above: Nikola Tesla, with Roger Boskovich's book "Theoria Philosophiae Naturalis", in front of the spiral coil of his high-frequency transformer at East Houston St., New York

 

Nikola Tesla's Alternating Current Electricity is driving our civilization to progress - Nikola Tesla is the genius who lit the world

Satellite Photo of "Earth at Night" - Tesla's Electrical Lights over continents  was published in the National Geographic Magazine, November Issue 2004

 

Above: Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo.
The greatest work of art on our planet. Click here for other masterpieces of art.

 

Click here for the US Tesla Postal Stamp (1983): A Tribute to American Inventors.

 

Above: The letterhead of Tesla's business stationery recalls some of his more important inventions.

 

 

A Message from Our Editoral Board (Click here)

This website contains important documents and photos about Nikola Tesla, Albert Einstein, Michael Pupin, famous sculptor Ivan Mestrovic, Mileva Maric (Einstein's wife), Stanford White (Tesla's friend), Dr. George Papanicolaou, Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia, Robert Underwood Johnson and painter Princess Lwoff-Parlaghy (Click on the names for more information).  This website is our contribution to science, history and the memory of those geniuses.  

Click here for Memory of the World, United Nations (Unesco)

The Tesla Bust by world famous sculptor Ivan Mestrovic, 1939

Click here for the proclamation of the "Tesla Unit" by the International Electro-Technical Commission. The "Tesla Unit" was proclaimed in Rathaus, Munich on June 27, 1956.

Tesla Bust to be placed in Rathaus, Munich, Germany as a tribute to the  "Tesla Unit" (click here for text)

Above: Wardenclyffe Tower with electrical sparks.  Tesla built this tower to transfer electricity without wires to electrify the entire earth and to be the first broadcasting system in the world.

Click here for the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade and the biography of Prof. Dr. Aleksandar Marincic, previous director Nikola Tesla Museum

Above: The Cathedral of Saint John the Divine, New York City, the place where Michael Pupin and  Nikola Tesla had funeral services.

Above: Mayor of the City of New York, Fiorello Laguardia, delivered a eulogy to Tesla broadcast on New York Radio, January 10, 1943.

 

Above: Transmitting Tesla Tower and Laboratory built in 1901-1905 by Stanford White, famous architect and Tesla's friend.  Located in Wardenclyffe, Long Island.  This was to be the first broadcasting system in the world.  Tesla also wanted to transmit electricity from this Tower to the whole globe without wires using the Ionosphere.  The source of the transmitted electricity was to be the Niagara Falls power plant.

Click here for Tesla's discovery of the rotating magnetic field

THE BLACKOUT OF 2003 - Only one day without Tesla's Alternating Current Electricity, America returned to the Dark Ages

Above: Nikola Tesla designed the first hydro-electric power plant in Niagara Falls.  This was the final victory of Tesla's Alternating Current over Edison's Direct Current.  This is the interior of Power House No. 1 of the Niagara Falls Power Company (1895-1899).

Above: View of the main water-fall at the Niagara river.  Beginning of the 20th century.

Above: Experimental Station at Colorado Springs where the first wireless transmission experiments were preformed (1899-1900). 

Above: Tesla sits below the Tesla Coil in his Colorado Spring Laboratory.  The coil creates millions of volts of electricity with a frequency rate of 100,000 alterations per second.

Above: One of the original Tesla Electric Motors from 1888 which is today the main power of for industry and household appliances.  Tesla's Electric Motor is one of the ten greatest inventions of all times.

Above:  Tesla is the father of high frequency high voltage electricity which is used today in radio and other communication devices.  Here is a photo from Colorado Springs, Colorado (in 1899), illustrating the capacity of the oscillator to create electricity of millions of volts and a frequency of 100,000 alternations per second.

 

 

 

Nikola Tesla holding a gas-filled phosphor-coated light bulb which was illuminated without wires by an electromagnetic field from the "Tesla Coil".

Tesla's Tribute - "Earth At Night" (Click here for NASA photo where you see electrical lights at night lighting every continent from Tesla's Alternating Current Electricity)

Who's Tesla?  

tesla1.jpgNikola Tesla (1856-1943) was the genius who lit the world, whose discoveries in the field of alternating polyphase current electricity advanced the United States and the rest of the world into the modern industrial era.

Nikola Tesla had 700 patents in the US and Europe. Tesla's discoveries include the Tesla Coil, fluorescent light,Tesla Statue wireless transmission of electrical energy, radio, remote control, discovery of cosmic radio waves and use of ionosphere for scientific purposes.

Nikola Tesla was a New Yorker, who lived and worked in New York City almost 60 years and died at Hotel New Yorker, in Manhattan, on January 7, 1943.

We here at the Tesla Memorial Society of New York want the world to know of Tesla.  Tesla's impact on our civilization is tremendous, and his memory should be kept alive.

In 1917, Tesla was awarded the Edison Medal, the most coveted electrical prize in the United States.  

Nikola Tesla's name has been honored with an International Unit of Magnetic Flux Density called "Tesla".

The United States Postal Service honored Tesla with a commemorative stamp in 1983.  

Tesla was inducted into the Inventor's Hall of Fame in 1975.

The Nikola Tesla Award is one of the most distinguished honors presented by the Institute of Electrical Engineers.  The award has been given annually since 1976.

The Nikola Tesla Award is presented annually since 1968, at the Area Power Conference, Duluth, Minnesota.  The award is furnished by Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation. 

The Nikola Tesla Statue is located on Goat Island to honor the man whose inventions were incorporated into the Niagara Falls Power Station in 1896.  Tesla is known as the inventor of the polyphase alternating current.

The Nikola Tesla Corner Sign located at the intersection of 40th Street and 6th Avenue in Manhattan, is a constant reminder to all New Yorkers of the greatness of this genius.

Many of the new technologies in the world today, are based on Tesla's ideas.  Tesla spent 50 years of his life to find a way for interplanetary communications, especially with Mars.  He is the first scientist in the world to use the Ionosphere for scientific purposes (The Ionosphere is the upper part the atmosphere under constant bombardment of solar energy, which breaks down molecules into ions causing an ionized shield of our atmosphere, very important for radio communications).

Nikola Tesla is a unifying force for the people of the Balkans, and the people of the previous Austro-Hungary Empire (an area of Europe devoted to science and progress).  Every child in the Balkans knows about Tesla.

The Tesla Memorial Society of New York is proposing that Tesla's birthday, July 10th, be proclaimed by the United Nations "Nikola Tesla Day".  This day will signify a day of science, cosmos explorations, and brotherhood among nations and religions around the world.

We are asking all Tesla admirers and all governments around the world to support the idea of "Nikola Tesla Day".

 

The World Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893 was the World's Fair commemorating 400 years since Chrstopher Columbys set foot in the New World.   This was the first great victory of Tesla's Alternating Current Electricity.  Tesla and George Westinghouse started the electrification of the globe.

Click below for information on:

 

The Tesla Collection : 23 Volume Set, Newspaper and Magazine articles about Tesla (from 1887 - 1920) is the most comprehensive information about Tesla ever published.  Those are newspaper articles written by Tesla and/or about Tesla when he was alive.

The Tesla Collection

 

"Nikola Tesla: The Genius Who Lit the World": VHS

"From Immigrant to Inventor : Michael Pupin Remembered": VHS

This film was produced in association with Columbia University Physics Department.  This is one of the rare documentary films about Michael Pupin, the history of Columbia University and the history of American Immigration.   Participants of the film are:

Prof. S.W. WU - Pupin Medalist.
Prof. Emeritus Samuel Devons - Chairman Physics Depart. Columbia University
Prof. Cyril M, Harris - President, New York Academy of Sciences Prof. Rodney W. Nichols - New York Academy of Sciences
William Aspray - Director IEEE Archives
Hallee Haswell - Director, Columbia Library

Author of the Film: Dr. Ljubo Vujovic

 

 

"Tribute to Nikola Tesla: Posterbook"( Volume 1 and 2)

              

 

Tesla Unit

Tesla Unit for magnetic flux density equation (T=W/m2) on Serbian money.

 

Tesla = Weber/m²

Nikola Tesla's name has been honored with the international unit of magnetic flux density called "Tesla".  All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machines are calibrated with Tesla Unit (from .2 Tesla to 9 Tesla).  MRI machines work on the principle of a homogeneous magnet field.  Nikola Tesla discovered the Rotating Magnetic Field in Budapest, 1882.  The Tesla Unit for magnetism was established in 1956 in the Rathaus of Munich, Germany by the International Electrotechnical Commission Committee in Action.

Because of the tremendous importance of the MRI technology and widespread use of the MRI machines around the world, which are all calibrated in Tesla Units, Tesla's name connected with the MRI will be known more and more in the future and the years to come.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is extremely important for medical diagnosis of internal organs of the human body, especially the diagnosis of cancer, tumors, degenerative diseases of the brain and spinal cord. The modern diagnosis of the internal organs of the human body would be today unthinkable without MRI.  MRI machines are  widespread with many variations in size and capacity all around the world.  The revenue of MRI machines sales was 1.46 billion dollars in 2002.  Revenue for MRI machine sales is expected to increase in the following years.

MRI employs a strong homogeneous magnetic field and specific radio frequency to which many elements, especially hydrogen nuclei respond with radio frequency signals.  These signals are analyzed by computer reconstruction algorithms.  The healthy tissue and pathological tissue have different radio frequency signals and produce different images on MRI.  Therefore enable us to make diagnosis of pathological tissues of the body.

MRI has the advantage over CT scan, it uses no ionizing radiation and does not cause cumulative harm.  The only contraindication of those related to the high magnetic field.  Magnetic-sensitive objects like pacemakers, watched and magnetic tapes are contraindicated.

A Short History of the MRI (Click here for article)

 

+ نوشته شده در  جمعه نوزدهم تیر 1388ساعت 16:29  توسط بابك  | 

Tesla Biography

NIKOLA TESLA

         THE GENIUS WHO LIT THE WORLD  

 

Nikola Tesla symbolizes a unifying force and inspiration for all nations in the name of peace and science. He was a true visionary far ahead of his contemporaries in the field of scientific development.  New York State and many other states in the USA proclaimed July 10, Tesla’s birthday- Nikola Tesla Day.

Many United States Congressmen gave speeches in the House of Representatives on July 10, 1990 celebrating the 134th anniversary of scientist-inventor Nikola Tesla. Senator Levine from Michigan spoke in the US Senate on the same occasion.

            The street sign “Nikola Tesla Corner” was recently placed on the corner of the 40th Street and 6th Avenue in Manhattan. There is a large photo of Tesla in the Statue of Liberty Museum. The Liberty Science Center in Jersey City, New Jersey has a daily science demonstration of the Tesla Coil creating a million volts of electricity before the spectators eyes. Many books were written about Tesla : Prodigal Genius: The Life of Nikola Tesla by John J. O’Neill  and Margaret Cheney’s book Tesla: Man out of Time has contributed significantly to his fame. A documentary film Nikola Tesla, The Genius Who Lit the World, produced by the Tesla Memorial Society and the Nikola Tesla Museum in Belgrade, The Secret of Nikola Tesla (Orson Welles), BBC Film Masters of the Ionosphere are other tributes to the great genius.

            Nikola Tesla was born on July 10, 1856 in Smiljan, Lika, which was then part of  the Austo-Hungarian Empire, region of Croatia. His father, Milutin Tesla was a Serbian Orthodox Priest and his mother Djuka Mandic was an inventor in her own right of household appliances. Tesla studied at the Realschule, Karlstadt in 1873, the Polytechnic Institute in Graz, Austria and the University of Prague. At first, he intended to specialize in physics and mathematics, but soon he became fascinated with electricity. He began his career as an electrical engineer with a telephone company in Budapest in 1881. It was there, as Tesla was walking with a friend through the city park that the elusive solution to the rotating magnetic field flashed through his mind. With a stick, he drew a diagram in the sand explaining to his friend the principle of the induction motor. Before going to America, Tesla joined Continental Edison Company in Paris where he designed dynamos. While in Strassbourg in 1883, he privately built a prototype of the induction motor and ran it successfully. Unable to interest anyone in Europe in promoting this radical device, Tesla accepted an offer to work for Thomas Edison in New York. His childhood dream was to come to America to harness the power of Niagara Falls.

            Young Nikola Tesla came to the United States in 1884 with an introduction letter from Charles Batchelor to Thomas Edison: “I know two great men,” wrote Batchelor, “one is you and the other is this young man.” Tesla spent the next 59 years of his productive life living in New York. Tesla set about improving Edison’s line of dynamos while working in Edison’s lab in New Jersey.  It was here that his divergence of opinion with Edison over direct current versus alternating current began. This disagreement climaxed in the war of the currents as Edison fought a losing battle to protect his investment in direct current equipment and facilities.

            Tesla pointed out the inefficiency of Edison’s direct current electrical powerhouses  that have been build up and down the Atlantic seaboard. The secret, he felt, lay in the use of alternating current ,because to him all energies were cyclic. Why not build generators that would send  electrical energy along distribution lines  first one way, than another, in multiple waves using the polyphase principle?

            Edison’s lamps were weak and inefficient  when supplied by direct current. This system had a severe disadvantage in that it could not be transported more than two miles due to its inability to step up to high voltage levels necessary for long distance transmission. Consequently, a direct current power station was required at two mile intervals.

            Direct current flows continuously in one direction; alternating current changes direction 50 or 60 times per second and can be stepped up to vary high voltage levels, minimizing power loss across great distances. The future belongs to alternating current.

            Nikola Tesla developed polyphase alternating current system of generators, motors and transformers and held 40 basic U.S. patents on the system, which George Westinghouse bought, determined to supply America with the Tesla system. Edison did not want to lose his DC empire, and a bitter war ensued. This was the war of the currents between AC and DC. Tesla -Westinghouse ultimately emerged the victor because AC was a superior technology. It was a war won for the progress  of both America and the world.

            Tesla introduced his motors and electrical systems in a classic paper, “A New System of Alternating Current Motors and Transformers” which he delivered before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1888. One of the most impressed was the industrialist and inventor George Westinghouse. One day he visited Tesla’s laboratory and was amazed at what he saw. Tesla had constructed a model polyphase system consisting of an alternating current dynamo, step-up and step-down transformers and A.C. motor at the other end. The perfect partnership between Tesla and Westinghouse for the nationwide use of electricity in America had begun.

In February 1882, Tesla discovered the rotating magnetic field, a fundamental principle in physics and the basis of nearly all devices that use alternating current.  Tesla brilliantly adapted the principle of rotating magnetic field for the construction of alternating current induction motor and the polyphase system for the generation, transmission, distribution and use of electrical power.

            Tesla’s A.C. induction motor is widely used throughout the world in industry

and household appliances. It started the industrial revolution at the turn of the

century. Electricity today is generated transmitted and converted to mechanical

power by means of his inventions. Tesla’s greatest achievement is his polyphase

alternating current system, which is today lighting the entire globe.

            Tesla astonished the world by demonstrating. the wonders of alternating current electricity at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. Alternating current became standard power in the 20th Century.  This accomplishment changed the world. He designed the first hydroelectric powerplant in Niagara Falls in 1895, which was the final victory of alternating current.  The achievement was covered widely in the world press, and Tesla was praised as a hero world wide.  King Nikola of Montenegro conferred upon him the Order of Danilo.

Tesla was a pioneer in many fields.  The Tesla coil, which he invented in 1891, is widely used today in radio and television sets and other electronic equipment.  That year also marked the date of Tesla's United States citizenship.  His alternating current induction motor is considered one of the ten greatest discoveries of all time.  Among his discoveries are the fluorescent light , laser beam, wireless communications, wireless transmission of electrical energy, remote control, robotics, Tesla’s turbines and vertical take off aircraft. Tesla is the father of the radio and the modern electrical transmissions systems. He registered over 700 patents worldwide. His vision included exploration of solar energy and the power of the sea. He foresaw interplanetary communications and satellites.

            The Century Magazine published Tesla's principles of telegraphy without wires, popularizing scientific lectures given before Franklin Institute in February 1893. 

The Electrical Review in 1896 published X-rays of a man, made by Tesla, with X-ray tubes of his own design.  They appeared at the same time as when Roentgen announced his discovery of X-rays.  Tesla never attempted to proclaim priority.  Roentgen congratulated Tesla on his sophisticated X-ray pictures, and  Tesla even wrote Roentgen's name on one of his films.  He experimented with shadowgraphs similar to those that later were to be used by Wilhelm Rontgen when he discovered X-rays in 1895.  Tesla's countless experiments included work on a carbon button lamp, on the power of electrical resonance, and on various types of lightning.  Tesla invented the special vacuum tube which emitted light to be used in photography.

The breadth of his inventions is demonstrated by his patents for a bladeless steam turbine based on a spiral flow principle.  Tesla also patented a pump design to operate at extremely high temperature. 

Nikola Tesla patented the basic system of radio in 1896.  His published schematic diagrams describing all the basic elements of the radio transmitter which was later used by Marconi.

In 1896 Tesla constructed an instrument to receive radio waves.  He experimented with this device and transmitted radio waves from his laboratory on South 5th Avenue. to the Gerlach Hotel at 27th Street in Manhattan.  The device had a magnet which gave off intense magnetic fields up to 20,000 lines per centimeter.  The radio device clearly establishes his piority in the discovery of radio. 

The shipboard quench-spark transmitter produced by the Lowenstein Radio Company and licensed under Nikola Tesla Company patents, was installed on the U.S. Naval vessels prior to World War I.

In December 1901, Marconi established wireless communication between Britain and the Newfoundland, Canada, earning him the Nobel prize in 1909.  But much of Marconi's work was not original.  In 1864, James Maxwell theorized electromagnetic waves.  In 1887, Heinrich Hertz proved Maxwell's theories.  Later, Sir Oliver Logde extended the Hertz prototype system.  The Brandley coherer increased the distance messages could be transmitted.  The coherer was perfected by Marconi.

However, the heart of radio transmission is based upon four tuned circuits for transmitting and receiving.  It is Tesla's original concept demonstrated in his famous lecture at the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia in 1893.  The four circuits, used in two pairs, are still a fundamental part of all radio and television equipment.

The United States Supreme Court, in 1943 held Marconi's most important patent invalid, recognizing Tesla's more significant contribution as the inventor of radio technology.

Tesla built an experimental station in Colorado Springs, Colorado in 1899, to experiment with high voltage, high frequency electricity and other phenomena.

When the Colorado Springs Tesla Coil magnifying transmitter was energized,  it created sparks 30 feet long.  From the outside antenna, these sparks could be seen from a distance of ten miles.  From this laboratory, Tesla generated and sent out wireless waves which mediated energy, without wires for miles.

 In Colorado Springs, where he stayed from May 1899 until 1900, Tesla made what he regarded as his most important discovery-- terrestrial stationary waves.  By this discovery he proved that the Earth could be used as a conductor and would be as responsive as a tuning fork to electrical vibrations of a certain frequency.  He also lighted 200 lamps without wires from a distance of 25 miles( 40 kilometers) and created man-made lightning.  At one time he was certain he had received signals from another planet in his Colorado laboratory, a claim that was met with disbelief in some scientific journals.

The old Waldorf Astoria was the residence of Nikola Tesla for many years.  He lived there when he was at the height of financial and intellectual power.  Tesla  organized elaborate dinners, inviting famous people who later witnessed spectacular electrical experiments in his laboratory.

Financially supported by J. Pierpont Morgan, Tesla built the Wardenclyffe laboratory and its famous transmitting tower in Shoreham, Long Island between 1901 and 1905. This huge landmark was 187 feet high, capped by a 68-foot copper dome which housed the magnifying transmitter.  It was planned to be the first broadcast system, transmitting both signals and power without wires to any point on the globe.  The huge magnifying transmitter, discharging high frequency electricity, would turn the earth into a gigantic dynamo which would project its electricity in unlimited amounts anywhere in the world.

Tesla's concept of wireless electricity was used to power ocean liners, destroy warships, run industry and transportation and send communications instantaneously all over the globe.  To stimulate the public's imagination, Tesla suggested that this wireless power could even be used for interplanetary communication.  If Tesla were confident to reach Mars, how much less difficult to reach Paris.  Many newspapers and periodicals interviewed Tesla and described his new system for supplying wireless power to run all of the earth's industry.

Because of a dispute between Morgan and Tesla as to the final use of the tower.  Morgan withdrew his funds.  The financier's classic comment was, "If anyone can draw on the power, where do we put the meter?"

The erected, but incomplete tower was demolished in 1917 for wartime security reasons.  The site where the Wardenclyffe tower stood still exists with its 100 feet deep foundation still intact.  Tesla's laboratory designed by Stanford White in 1901 is today still in good condition and is graced with a bicentennial plaque.  

Tesla lectured to the scientific community on his inventions in New York, Philadelphia and St. Louis and before scientific organizations in both England and France in 1892. Tesla’s lectures and writings of the 1890s aroused wide admiration among contemporaries popularized his inventions and inspired untold numbers of younger men to enter the new field of radio and electrical science.

            Nikola Tesla was one of the most celebrated personalities in the American press, in this century.  According to Life Magazine's special issue of September, 1997, Tesla is among the 100 most famous people of the last 1,000 years.  He is one of the great men who divert the stream of human history.  Tesla's celebrity was in its height at the turn of the century.  His discoveries, inventions and vision had widespread acceptance by the public, the scientific community and American press.  Tesla's discoveries had extensive coverage in the scientific journals, the daily and weekly press as well as in the foremost literary and intellectual publications of the day.  He was the Super Star. 

Tesla wrote many autobiographical articles for the prominent journal Electrical Experimenter, collected in the book, My Inventions.  Tesla was gifted with intense powers of visualization and exceptional memory from early youth on.  He was able to fully construct, develop and perfect his inventions completely in his mind before committing them to paper. 

According to Hugo Gernsback, Tesla was possessed of a striking physical appearance over six feet tall with deep set eyes and a stately manner.  His impressions of Tesla, were of a man endowed with remarkable physical and mental freshness, ready to surprise the world with more and  more inventions as he grew older.  A lifelong bachelor he led a somewhat isolated existence, devoting his full energies to science. 

In 1894, he was given honorary doctoral degrees by Columbia and Yale University and the Elliot Cresson  medal by the Franklin Institute.  In 1934, the city of Philadelphia awarded him the John Scott medal for his polyphase power system. He was an honorary member of the National Electric Light Association and a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. On one occasion, he turned down an invitation from Kaiser Wilhelm II to come to Germany to demonstrate his experiments and to receive a high decoration.

            In 1915, a New York Times article announced that Tesla and Edison were to share the Nobel Prize for physics.  Oddly, neither man received the prize, the reason being unclear.  It was rumored that Tesla refused the prize because he would not share with Edison, and because Marconi had already received his.


(Tesla's friend Mark Twain, famous American writer) 

On his 75th birthday in 1931, the inventor appeared on the cover of Time Magazine. On this occasion, Tesla received congratulatory letters from more than 70 pioneers in science and engineering including Albert Einstein. These letters were mounted and presented to Tesla in the form of a testimonial volume.  

            Tesla died on January 7th, 1943 in the Hotel New Yorker, where he had lived for the last ten years of his life.  Room 3327 on the 33rd floor is the two-room suites  he occupied.

            A state funeral was held at  St. John the Divine Cathedral in New York City. Telegrams of condolence were received from many notables, including the first lady Eleanor Roosevelt and Vice President Wallace. Over 2000 people attended, including several Nobel Laureates. He was cremated in Ardsley on the Hudson, New York. His ashes were interned in a golden sphere, Tesla’s favorite shape, on permanent display at the Tesla Museum in Belgrade along with his death mask.

            In his speech presenting Tesla with the Edison medal, Vice President Behrend of the Institute of Electrical Engineers eloquently expressed the following:  "Were we to seize and eliminate from our industrial world the result of Mr. Tesla's work, the wheels of industry would cease to turn, our electric cars and trains would stop, our towns would be dark and our mills would be idle and dead.  His name marks an epoch in the advance of electrical science."  Mr. Behrend ended his speech with a paraphrase of Pope's lines on Newton:  "Nature and nature's laws lay hid by night.  God said 'Let Tesla be' and all was light."

 

                        “The world will wait a long time for Nikola Tesla’s equal in

                                           achievement and imagination.”  E. ARMSTRONG

 

                                    Nikola Tesla’s Awards and Recognition

 

In 1917, Tesla was awarded the Edison Medal, the most coveted electrical prize in the United States.

Nikola Tesla’s name has been honored with an International Unit of Magnetic Flux Density called “Tesla."

The United States Postal Service honored Tesla with a commemorative stamp in 1983.

Tesla was inducted into the Inventor’s Hall of Fame in 1975.

The Nikola Tesla Award is one of the most distinguished honors presented by the Institute of Electrical Engineers. The award has been given annually since 1976.

The Nikola Tesla Statue is located on Goat Island to honor the man whose inventions were incorporated into the Niagara Falls Power Station  in 1895. Tesla is known as the inventor of polyphase alternating current.

The Nikola Tesla Corner Sign, located at the intersection of 40th Street and 6th Avenue in Manhattan, is a constant reminder to all New Yorkers of the greatness of this genius.

 

New York, July 10, 1998

منبع از:www.teslasociety.com

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Tesla was awarded the highest order of the White Lion by Czechoslovakia

 

Nikola Tesla

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Nikola Tesla
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), circa 1896.
Nikola Tesla (1856-1943), circa 1896.
Born 10 July 1856(1856-07-10)
Smiljan, Austrian Empire
(Military Frontier)
Died 7 January 1943 (aged 86)
New York City, New York, USA
Residence Austrian Empire
Kingdom of Hungary
France
USA
Citizenship Austrian Empire (pre-1891)
American (post-1891)
Ethnicity Serbian
Fields Mechanical and electrical engineering
Institutions Edison Machine Works
Tesla Electric Light & Manufacturing
Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Co.
Known for Tesla coil
Tesla turbine
Teleforce
Tesla's oscillator
Tesla electric car
Tesla principle
Tesla's Egg of Columbus
Alternating current
Induction motor
Rotating magnetic field
Wireless technology
Particle beam weapon
Death ray
Terrestrial stationary waves
Bifilar coil
Telegeodynamics
Electrogravitics
Influences Ernst Mach
Influenced Gano Dunn
Notable awards Edison Medal (1916)
Elliott Cresson Gold Medal (1893)
John Scott Medal (1934)
Religious stance Serbian Orthodox[1]
Signature
Nikola Tesla's signature

Nikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was an inventor and a mechanical and electrical engineer. Tesla was an ethnic Serb born in the village of Smiljan, Vojna Krajina, in the territory of today's Croatia. He was a subject of the Austrian Empire by birth and later became an American citizen.[2] Tesla is often described as an important scientist and inventor of the modern age, a man who "shed light over the face of Earth".[3] He is best known for many revolutionary contributions in the field of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Tesla's patents and theoretical work formed the basis of modern alternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the polyphase power distribution systems and the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution.

After his demonstration of wireless communication (radio) in 1894 and after being the victor in the "War of Currents", he was widely respected as one of the greatest electrical engineers who worked in America.[4] Much of his early work pioneered modern electrical engineering and many of his discoveries were of groundbreaking importance. During this period, in the United States, Tesla's fame rivaled that of any other inventor or scientist in history or popular culture,[5] but due to his eccentric personality and his seemingly unbelievable and sometimes bizarre claims about possible scientific and technological developments, Tesla was ultimately ostracized and regarded as a mad scientist.[6][7] Never having put much focus on his finances, Tesla died impoverished at the age of 86.

The SI unit measuring magnetic flux density or magnetic induction (commonly known as the magnetic field "B"), the tesla, was named in his honor (at the Conférence Générale des Poids et Mesures, Paris, 1960), as well as the Tesla effect of wireless energy transfer to wirelessly power electronic devices which Tesla demonstrated on a low scale (lightbulbs) as early as 1893 and aspired to use for the intercontinental transmission of industrial energy levels in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project.

Aside from his work on electromagnetism and electromechanical engineering, Tesla contributed in varying degrees to the establishment of robotics, remote control, radar and computer science, and to the expansion of ballistics, nuclear physics,[8] and theoretical physics. In 1943, the Supreme Court of the United States credited him as being the inventor of the radio.[9] Many of his achievements have been used, with some controversy, to support various pseudosciences, UFO theories, and early New Age occultism.

Tesla was awarded the highest order of the White Lion by Czechoslovakia.

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